How do I include referencing in my assignments?

 

‘Referencing’ means acknowledging all the sources of information you have used to produce your own piece of work. These may be books, individual chapters in books, websites, articles, journals, newspapers and any useful resources for your assignment.

 

Referencing is an important aspect of any academic piece of writing. This is because it:

 

  • Supports what you are saying with published evidence and/or previous studies;
  • Demonstrates the scope and depth of your research;
  • Enables the reader to locate and verify that your sources are correct;
  • Allows you to offer different points of view on a subject;
  • Enables you to make useful comparisons;
  • Enables you to distinguish your own opinion from that of others.

 

All work submitted to Open Study College should be referenced in the Harvard format.

 

The Harvard style of referencing uses both in-text references (included in the main text of your assignment) and a reference list. The in-text references are brief and appear in brackets, saving the full bibliographic details until the end of the assignment, in the form of a reference list.

 

The examples below show you how to reference each type of resource in both the ‘in-text’ format and the ‘reference list’ format.

 

Books by one author

 

In-text reference:

 

Armstrong (2005) notes how the late-nineteenth century was characterised by new forms of mass-consumption.

 

The early twentieth-century notion of modernity was “viewed in terms of crisis” (Armstrong, 2005, p.1).

 

Reference list:

 

Author’s surname, Initial. (Date) Title of book, Place of publication, Name of publisher.

 

Armstrong, T. (2005) Modernism, Cambridge, Polity Press.

 

Books by two or more authors

 

In-text reference:

 

Honorifics provide important evidence for the link between language and politeness (Brown and Levinson, 1987).

 

You can also use the Latin abbreviation et al. (literally meaning ‘and others’) as shorthand for multiple authors. For instance, you could also reference the example above like this:

 

Honorifics provide important evidence for the link between language and politeness (Brown et al., 1987)

 

Reference list:

 

Brown, P. and Levinson, S. (1987) Politeness: some universals in language usage. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

 

Chapters in books


In-text reference

 

Threats to selfhood arise largely from social conditions (Perlman, 1975).

 

Reference list

 

Surname, Initial. (Date of publication), ‘Title of Chapter’ in Editor’s name (ed.) Title of book, Place of publication, Name of publisher.

 

Example:

 

Perlman, H. H. (1975), ‘Self determination: reality or illusion?’ in McDermott, F.E (ed.) Self Determination in Social Work, London, Routledge and Paul Kegan Ltd.

 

Articles in journals

 

In-text reference

 

Griswold (1981) identifies reflection theory as one approach to the connection between a society and its literature.

 

Reference list

 

Author’s surname, Initials. (Date of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of journal, volume number, issue number, page range pp.XX-XX.

 

Example:

 

Griswold, W. (1981) ‘American Character and the American Novel: An Expansion of Reflection Theory in the Sociology of Literature’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp.740-765.

 

OR if using an online version:

 

Griswold, W. (1981) ‘American Character and the American Novel: An Expansion of Reflection Theory in the Sociology of Literature’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 86, no. 4 [online] http://www.jstor.org/stable/2778341 (Accessed: 06 September 2012).

 

Online web resources

 

In-text

 

According to BBC News (2012), “a far larger chunk of our genetic code is biologically active than previously thought”.

 

Reference list

 

BBC News (2012) Detailed map of genome function http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-19202141 (Accessed 06 September 2012)

 

Reference list

 
The reference list should include all the sources you have used in alphabetical order of the authors’ surname (A-Z). If you are using a source with no identified author, please still include it alphabetically (i.e. a ‘BBC News’ article would still be listed under ‘B’ in the reference list). A reference list should always have the title 'Reference List' at the top to avoid confusion.

At the end of an assignment, your reference list might look something like this:

Reference List 

 

Armstrong, T. (2005) Modernism, Cambridge, Polity Press.

 

BBC News (2012) Detailed map of genome function http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-19202141 (Accessed 06 September 2012)

 

Brown, P. and Levinson, S. (1987) Politeness: some universals in language usage. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

 

Griswold, W. (1981) ‘American Character and the American Novel: An Expansion of Reflection Theory in the Sociology of Literature’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp.740-765.

 

Perlman, H. H. (1975), ‘Self determination: reality or illusion?’ in McDermott, F.E (ed.) Self Determination in Social Work, London, Routledge and Paul Kegan Ltd.